Cashew is a kind of fruit and nut crop. This crop is not only planted in Cambodia, but also in Brazil, Philippine, India,
Vietnamese, Tanzania, Katina, Mozambique, and other Southeast Asia countries. These countries are also developing on the kind of crop because demands of this product are increasing.
Cashew is a form of Anacardiaceac, science name Anacadium occidentale. In this form there are 60 races and around 500 kinds.
The original of cashew tree come from the northeast of Brazil.
1. Seed Germination
In normal condition, cashew nut can germinate after it was planted for 12 to 20 days, but if in good condition, it just takes only 10 to 17 days. This seed germination is made by soaking cashew nuts for 2 days, then spill the water, do this until the seeds germinate.
However, the research said that in Philippine they practice new way for seed germination without soaking in water. This new way is called TUPRUSSIB, they practice successfully at UR-Rural High school in Los Banos Province, Philippine.
How to practice
a. We cut the head of cashew nut on little meat of seed.
b. We split the cashew fruit on width but not break up.
c. We bring the head cut cashew nut to put into the split fruit so that it absorbs the wet from cashew apple.
d. The nut which had already germinated must be dipped in insect protected medicine.
e. We can take to seed at farm directly or o plant in a small bowl made by leaves in planting field until it is 2.5 to 4 months.
For this new way we see that seed can germinate as bud for only 5 to 6 days.
2. Holes making
Holes making for planting cashew tree, we must dig hole with 50cm square sides. First we chop up the soil and dry a few days, then we chop up again and fertilize animal excrement before we mound up over the hole by taking soil around the hole. We can make holes in rows from 7m to 10m between them. In some fertile areas, we just dig hole and plant at the same time without fertilizer because of fertile soil.
In some areas we can plant cashew trees without preparing the holes; we just dig and bury the nuts directly. This is for the
areas that have enough rain.
3. Cashew trees planting
There are three ways in planting cashew trees as the following:
a. Direct nut planting
Its disadvantages are difficult to define the amount of germinated seeds. In this case, we need to spend many seeds more than 2 nuts per clump.
It is easy to plant cashew nuts directly. We must plant from 7m to 10m between each tree. We plant cashew trees in rainy season.
b. Germinated seeds planting
We can ensure all the seeds we plant, they can grow all of them. After planting we must water two times a day, but if we are far
away from water supply we can water one time a day. We can plant cashew trees without watering: we should plant them after rainy day. This is for farmers or areas without water or wells or ponds. The area we can plant cashew tree with
good result is the area that contain soil with little sand.
Leaves and stems start growing after planting. In some case, cashew trees start branching after 2 months later. The3y start flowering and setting fruits in three years and they can live for 50 years.
c. Grafting Seeds planting
It is now very popular. We graft the healthy branches of cashew trees. We can plant in 3 ways: square, alternated and rectangular
The following is the formula to calculate the amount of stems to plant in the area:
Number of Stem = Total surface of land available/ Square length between stems
*** How to practice in planting
1. We should choose good seeds.
2. We must seed first before planting.
3. We must take rotten seeds away to avoid spreading of diseases.
4. Before planting we must dig holes at the same size and depth as 50cm square sides.
5. We must plant 7m to 10m between each clump.
6. We must plant on the early rainy season or late dry season. We should avoid planting in July, August and September.
7. We should cover the bases of trees after planting.
8. We must pull grasses and take a good care.
9. We should remove any bad young trees early.
10. We must fertilize young cashew trees so that they can grow well and fast.
11. We don’t let young cashew trees cover too much shadow and we must set up the fences to protect.
4. Caring and protecting
Fertilization is more important to all kinds of crops. Cashew crop also needs fertilizer especially for the first year
after planting. If we use organic fertilizer, we must use 500 grams per tree; Urea and Ammonium Sulphate fertilizer. We must
fertilizer before they produce flowers to increase more fruits.
b. Grass pulling and bunch stripping
Good branch stripping and grass pulling is a best way to cut down insect nests that are the disease source and help the crop no grass.
We pull out the grasses under the young trees and strip the old leaves and dead branches from the cashew trees.
This task start whenever the stems are too old with some death branches that break down by wind, we must cut down the
old branches to let the new branches grow next.
- Ripen fruit : bats, fox bats, rats, worms, flies.
- Nut : Worms and weevils
- Leaf : Worms, grass- hoppers, certain small insects that feed on vegetable plant.
- Stem and branches : termites…..
- We must plant cashew tree by keeping an appropriate length from each tree to avoid the shadow to each other.
- We must cut and strip cashew branch to make space around its stem.
- We spray medicine to protect such as Sevin and Thiodan.
- We fertilize correctly to the time defined.
- We pick fruits to take out the rotten fruits to avoid diseases spreading to good fruits.
We had found some diseases on cashew crop:
- On fruit: Rotting and molding
- On branch: Anthranose, rotten bark, stem and branch
- On leaf: leaf rust
- Nut : molding
For Anthronose disease, we can cure it by using Fungicide or Vita gram blue fungicide.
We start harvesting whenever the fruits are ripe well. This harvest is made continuously by shaking the branches or cutting branches down. We do this can affect fruits quality because they can be livid and easy to rot. The best way is to pick with a stick that have strainer or we can use step to pick from the short cashew trees so that we can keep a good quality of fruits. In some area, the cashew apples are useless so they take only cashew nut. For we don’t have machines to transform these fruits to any products, they need only nuts to sell in market. We dry nuts before we sell them to market.
6. Selling of cashew nut
After harvesting, cashew nut must transform to a kind of foods that most people like by toasting then mix with sugar that is called toasted cashew nuts.
** How to cook
We must toast and break cashew nuts into two pieces with a small knife, and then we shell them with steel. After we got many pieces, we toast again then just broadcast sugar is enough.